Saat Bhay staan or seven fear foundations
- Iha lokbhay: fear of this world.
- Par lokbhay: fear of the next world .
- Adanabhay : fear of losing property theft etc.
- Ajivabhay; fear from the non- living which means earthquakes and other natural calamities.
- Aakasmatbhay; fear of accidents such events and the unknown.
- Maranbhay; fear of death.
- Aslokbhay: fear of the society, ones reputation, and what others say and think about one self.
These are briefly enumerated, but there are several types of fears which a living being undergoes and can be classified in any of these seven. Fear is closely related to time, in fact it has its root in TIME. Fear has its roots in attachments e.g. there is the fear of the unknown parlok (of the next world) which is not known…but when one ponders is it a matter of fact??? It is illogical, one cannot have fear of what is not known, In deep contemplation one gets the insight that, the attachment to the known and the unwillingness to let go, breeds fear. When one is in a state of aparigrah and living in absolute moment, one perceives that there is no fear. Similarly one should ponder, and get insights about all other fears mentioned above. One should neither live in fear nor put other living beings in a state of fear.
There are several DAYA or kindness or merit mentioned in the NIRGRANTH dharma, like annapunya –giving food; paan punya – giving water; shayan punya – giving dwelling place etc. Mahavir the Nirgranth suggest ABHAYDAYANAAM the highest and the best of all merits and charity is freeing oneself and others from all kinds of fears
Nature of Karma
They are of eight kinds :-
- Gyanavarniya : acts as an obstruction to right learning.
- Darshanavarniya: acts as an obstruction to right perception .
- Vedniya: Sensations leading to experiencing pain or pleasure.
- Mohaniya : acts that lead to delusion, due to desire.
- Ayush karma: Which determines the duration or length of life.
- Naaman karma: Which determines the individuality of the embodied soul.
- Gotra karma: which determines caste creed genetic evolvement, hereditary factors.
- Antray karma: conditioning which prevents one to lead to the path of liberation.
Obstruction to knowledge are fivefold, viz: obstruction to :
shrut – knowledge derived from sacred books.
Abhinibodhika – perception.
Avadhignana – supernatural knowledge
Manahparyaya – knowledge of the mind of other people and ones own.
kevala – highest and infinite (beyond description)
2) Darshanvarniya : obstruction of perception are four by chakshu achakshu avadhi and keval darshan. It is also explained as the five, in the form of Nidra sleep; nidra nidra deep sleep; prachala –slumber of a standing or a sitting person; prachala prachala –deep sleep of a person in motion . styanagriddhi somnambulism.
3) Vedaniya : Obstructions to sensations are of two fold that of pleasure and of pain. there are two sub types of vedaniya karma. The karma, whose manifestation brings about pleasure in a being is called Sata vedaniya karma. The karma whose manifestation brings about pain in a being is called Asata vedaniya karma.There are also many sub division of obstructions in pleasure and so are many subdivision of obstructions causing pain.
4) Mohaniya: There are two type of Mohaniya karma .
A)Darshan mohaniya – The karma whose manifestation obstructs to perceive the real nature of substances is called mithya mohaniya. The karma whose manifestation obstructs partly resulting in wavering is mishra mohaniya. The karma whose manifestation brings about to perceive the real nature of substances is called samyaktva mohaniya.
B) Charitra Mohaniya – conduct and act which causes obstructions and can be experienced in the form of four cardinal passions Kashay (krodh – anger; maan – pride; maya deceit; lobha greed). Further, the sixteen divisions of Karman produced by the cardinal passion are arrived by subdividing each of the four passions with regards to the severity of the acts (bandha) of these in four ways viz.
- anantanubandha – similar to a deep scar on hard metal, which will always remain for a life time;
- pratyakhyana – similar to an scar on wood which can be buffed off;
- apratyakhyana – similar to a deep line drawn of sand which remains for a very short period;
- samgvalana, similar to a line drawn on water. Thus these are four degrees of passions into multiples of four main passions thus sixteen divisions.
Similarly what is experienced in the form of feelings are further explained as nine folds, these are called no-kashays , here no – means, that which act as a catalyst and stimulate the four main cardinal passions (anger pride deceit and greed). These nine are hasya laughter; rati –arati likes and dislikes; bhay and shok – fear and sorrow; jugupsha – disgust ; purush ved, karma which brings about a state of being perturbed ,appropriate to a man, same for woman is called stree ved and napunshak ved is karma which brings about the same state appropriate to a neuter gay activities).
For example lets take the first no-kashay Hasya –laughter is directly related to pride. (not to be confused with smile) It is only an observant mind which can see the subtlety of it, eg: a person laughing at the antics of a small child, here there is an element of pride because he feels he is an adult in comparison. Even when a person laughs at himself, it is only by going back in memory, which is past but now he thinks he is more knowledgeable (smarter). Similarly the other no-kashays can be related to the four main passions, which is worth pondering……
5) Aayush: the karma whose manifestation compels a being to lead life of a heavenly being, a human being, an animal being , a hellish being are respectively called dev ayush karma; manushya aayush karma ; tiryanch aayush karma and narak aayush karma.
6) Naam karma: Possession of definite number of sense organs and being born in a particular kind of species is associated with naam karma. There are forty – two types of them out of which fourteen sub types are named as pind prakriti ten as sthavardasaka , and eight sub types are called pratyek or prakruti.
7) Gotra : generally it is classified as ochh (high)and neech (low) gotra. The karma by which one is born in a family which brings prestige is called ochha gotra and which fails to bring prestige is called neecha gotra. Such families together evolve into clans due to their genetic breeding and pedigree. This same pattern is seen in the animal kingdom too.
8) Antray karma: There are many misconceptions in the traditional view regarding this. It is that karma by which, due to our conditioning we act and give opinions which create obstructions hurdles for others and for ourselves. All opinions start in the mind due to our conditioning (sanskara). In our spiritual endeavors, this is our practical way by which one should make an effort to get rid off first, rather than the mohaniya karma which is traditionally understood. A sincere student starts with the lower one and graduates to higher. Actually antray simply means aantar ki ray (inner opinion) which breeds from the mind,that which is the result of conditioning. In brief there are five sub types of antray karma: daanasya – obstacles with regards to giving charity and donation; laabhasya – obstacles with regards to gains and profits; bhogasya – obstacles with regards to enjoyments; upbhogasya – obstacles with regards to continuous enjoyments. virasya – obstructing manifestation of energy. When one creates interference in the above with respect to himself or others antray karmas accrues for oneself. Thus one should ponder thoroughly in ones day to day life.