Tatvarthaadhigama Sutra was written by ‘Vachaka Umaswati’ derieved from the principles of Nirgranth ‘Deshna’.
Sutra is coming from the word ‘sut’ meaning Yarn. A yarn consists of innumerable filaments. As one rises in spiritual levels, deeper meanings are revealed. Contemplation on the sutras results in insights. ‘Sutra’ is in condensed form where minimum words are used. It also means a secret, idea. Meaning of ‘asutra’ is planning, sutra is unplanned. Sutras are based on ‘deshnas of tirthankaras. Deshana is spoken without a motive, i.e. ‘nathi udhdeso paasagasse’ as always mentioned in most chapters of Acharanga Sutra.
Tatvarthaadhigama Sutra first chapter first aphorism is ’Samyak darshan Gyan Charitrani moksha marg’ It explains samayak darshan gyan charitra (ratna treyi ) together is the way to moksha . Uttaradhyana sutra chapter 28 named ‘moksha marg’ also subscribes to a similar meaning – “na dhamsanisa nanam, nanena vina na hunti charana guna, agunasya nathi mokho, nathi amokhasya nibbanam’! Here there’s a difference between Moksha and Nirvaan, moksha is moha ka kshay which is the state of twelfth gunasthanak i.e. kshina mohaniya, which happens here and the consequence being nirvana… nir = without, vaan = body i.e. asariri avastha , freedom from transmigration. Thus it means without samyak darshan there is no samayak gyan ,without samayak gyan there is no samyak charitra, without all these qualities there is no moksha, and without moksha there is no nirvana.
What is Samyak? The word Samyak is coming from the root word ‘samay’. Samyak Darshan , samyaktva, Samkit, Samayik, all these words are derieved from this root word ‘samay’.
‘Samyo’ is the title of the first chapter of suyagadang sutra. What is samay is also explained in Bhagwati sutra, in chapter eleven shataka eleven
. In a conversation between Bhagwan Mahavir and Sudamsana Shethi, samay is defined as indivisible unit of time. The actual word in the sutra is explained as “No Vibhajaya” (no division). Concept of time in Hinduism is YUG and Buddhism it is KALP.
It is only in Nirgranth Dharma that the concept of time is thoroughly explained. Starting with samay upto anant kaalchakra. Fractions of time are avli, sthok, muhrat etc. to a maxium period of utsarpini – ascending cycles, avsarpini descending cycles, and anant kaalchakras infinite time cycles.
Quote-Acharya kundakund , ’Samyo khalu Nimmalo appa’! the uncontaminated the unconditional soul is samay
Samyak is functionally absence of time gap between Darshan gyan and charitra. How does this state come about? It is very difficult to put in words this state of being. Darshan simply means to look, observe, cognize. Gyan is a state of knowing, comprehending, learning. Charitra is conduct or act of the above two which is darshan and gyan. When there is indivisible state of time there are no thoughts! Time is thought! Yet this state is not uncommon e.g. whenever there is crisis or danger our thought speech and action are spontaneous.
A simile in a story form explains this in Acharanga sutra chapter 6. This is a story of a (Kurma )turtle. It goes as – there was a pool fully covered with algae (sheval). In the pond there were many turtles with their family and relatives. The turtle could never peek at the open sky because of the algae covering the surface. One day something fell in the pond piercing the algae. One turtle managed to surf his way up and had a glimpse of the vast open sky from that spot. He was wonderstruck, when a thought come to his mind, that I must show this to my family and friends. He went to fetch his family and friends and came back to the surface, but alas that spot was again covered with algae. The crux of the story was that the wonder struck state was thought free. The thought of going back to fetch his family and friends was state of attachment.
Any attempt to describe in words, which are pudgals (non living), the living (jeev ) ,is being illogical and absurd, so atma/samay in the absolute view is indescribable.
Acharang Sutra Chapter five quote – All sounds recoil thence, where speculation has no room nor does the mind penetrate there! Atma is not long non-small non round non triangular non quadrangular non circular; he is not black, nor blue, nor red, nor green, nor white, neither of good nor bad smell; nor bitter nor pungent; nor astringent nor sweet; neither rough nor soft; neither heavy nor light; neither hot nor cold; neither harsh nor smooth; he is without body; without resurrection; without contact (of matter); he is not feminine nor Masculine nor neuter; he perceives ,he knows but there is no analogy (whereby know the nature of the liberated soul); its essence is without form; there is no condition of the unconditioned . There is no sound, no taste, no touch, nothing of that kind.
To be continued…..next aphorism..most important